Friday, March 20, 2020

Lucille Balls Feminism in The Lucy Show

Lucille Balls Feminism in The Lucy Show Sitcom Title: The Lucy Show Years Aired: 1962–1968 Stars: Lucille Ball, Vivian Vance, Gale Gordon, Mary Jane Croft, many celebrities who guest-starred as themselves Feminist focus? Women, particularly Lucille Ball, can tell a complete story without husbands. The feminism in The Lucy Show comes from the fact that it was a sitcom focused on a woman, and that woman didnt always act in ways considered ladylike.  Lucille Ball played a widow, Lucy Carmichael, and Vivian Vance, for part of the show’s run, played her divorced best friend, Vivian Bagley. Notably, the main characters were women without husbands. Sure, the male characters included a banker in charge of Lucy’s trust fund and a recurring-role boyfriend, but shows that revolved around a woman without a husband were not common before The Lucy Show. Who Loves Lucy This Time? Lucille Ball was already a famous, extremely talented actress and comedian when The Lucy Show began. During the 1950s she had starred with then-husband Desi Arnaz on I Love Lucy, one of the most popular TV shows of all time, where she and Vivian Vance engaged in countless antics as Lucy and Ethel. In the 1960s, the comic duo reunited on The Lucy Show as Lucy and Vivian. Vivian was the first long-running divorced woman on primetime television. The original title of the series was to be  The Lucille Ball Show, but that was rejected by CBS.  Vivian Vance insisted that her character name be Vivian, tried of being called Ethel from her time with  I Love Lucy. Not a World Without Men Finding a little feminism in The Lucy Show does not mean there were no men. Lucy and Vivian did interact with plenty of male characters, including men they dated. However, the 1960s were an interesting time in TV history- a decade that saw inventive plot lines, experimentation outside the nuclear family model and the shift from black and white to color TV, among other developments. Here was Lucille Ball, proving again that a woman could carry a show. Gone were the I Love Lucy plots that so often revolved around tricking or hiding something from the husbands. Successful Women The Lucy Show was a top-ten ratings success as the women brought laughs to millions. Years later, Lucille Ball was asked why newer sitcoms weren’t as good as her classic sitcoms, despite a wider range of material. Lucille Ball answered that they were trying to make comedy out of reality- and who would want to listen to that?† While she may have rejected abortion and social unrest as sitcom material, Lucille Ball in many ways IS the feminism of The Lucy Show. She was a powerful woman in Hollywood who could do anything she wanted, for years, and who responded to the women’s liberation movement with a voice and viewpoint that were unique, decidedly brave and already liberated. Production Company and Series Evolution Desi Arnaz, Lucille Balls husband until 1960, ran Desilu Productions until 1963 when Ball bought his shares and became the first female CEO of any major television production corporation.   Arnaz, despite the divorce, was instrumental in talking the networks into taking on the new show.  Arnaz was the executive producer of fifteen of the first thirty episodes. In 1963, Arnaz resigned as head of Desilu Productions. Lucille Ball became President of the company, and Arnaz was also replaced as executive producer of  The Lucy Show.  Ã‚  The show was filmed the next season in color rather than black and white, though it was broadcast in black and white until 1965.  Cast changes introduced Gale Gordon and lost several male characters. (Gale Gordon had appeared on radio with Lucille Ball in a show  My Favorite Husband  that evolved into  I Love Lucy, and had been offered the role on  I Love Lucy  of Fred Mertz.) In 1965, differences over pay, commuting, and creative control led to a split between Lucille Ball and Vivian Vance, and Vance left the series.  She appeared at the end of the run for some guest appearances. By 1966, the children of Lucy Carmichael, her trust fund, and much of the previous history of the show had disappeared, and she played the part as a Los Angeles based single woman.  When Vivian returned as a married woman for a few guest appearances, their children were not mentioned. Lucille Ball founded Lucille Ball Productions in 1967, during the life of  The Lucy Show.  Ã‚  Her new husband, Gary Morton, was executive producer of  The Lucy Show  from 1967 on. Even the sixth season of the show was very popular, ranked #2 in the Nielsen ratings. She ended the series after the sixth season, and began a new show,  Heres Lucy, with her children Lucie Arnaz and Desi Arnaz, Jr., playing key roles. Pregnancy on Television Lucille Ball, in her original series I Love Lucy  (1951–1957) with her husband Desi Arnaz, had broken ground when, against the advice of the television network and ad agencies, her real-life pregnancy was integrated into the show.  For the seven episodes with her pregnant, the censorship code of the time forbid the use of the term pregnant and instead permitted expecting  (or, in Desis Cuban accent, spectin).

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

50 Nautical Terms in General Use

50 Nautical Terms in General Use 50 Nautical Terms in General Use 50 Nautical Terms in General Use By Mark Nichol The vocabulary of sailing has enriched the English language with the development, by analogy, of new senses for nautical terms. Here are fifty such words with their original meanings and their landlubber connotations. 1. Aboard: on a vessel (assisting or in sympathy with) 2. Aboveboard: above the deck (out in the open, honest) 3. Adrift: not tied or secured (acting or living without purpose) 4. Aground: resting on the seafloor on shore (halted by circumstances) 5. Anchor: a heavy object that holds a vessel in place (a person or thing that figuratively keeps another person or thing steady) 6. Awash: water level with or slightly covering the deck (overwhelmed) 7. Bail: to throw out seawater or rainwater that has collected in a vessel (to help, or to abandon) 8. Ballast: stabilizing weights placed in the hull of a vessel (something that steadies or weighs down) 9. Beachcomber: a sailor without a berth or a shipboard assignment (a person living on or near a beach or the shore or one who searches such areas for salvage, or both) 10. Bearing: one’s position (posture or deportment) 11. Becalm: to come to a stop because of a lack of wind (to halt progress) 12. Berth: a sailor’s assignment, or a sailor’s bunk (a position or placement, in a location or in rankings) 13. Bilge: the lowest part of a hull (outdated or useless comments or ideas) 14. Capsize: to overturn (to ruin or interfere) 15. Chart: a navigational map, or to map a course (a display of graphical information, or to set a course) 16. Cockpit: a steering or berthing compartment (the pilot’s compartment in an airplane, or a place for cockfighting or location notorious for violence) 17. Course: the direction a ship is sailing (a procedure or a way of acting) 18. Current: a movement of water (the prevailing mood or tendency) 19. Heading: the direction a ship is sailing (one’s course) 20. Headway: progress or rate of progress in sailing (progress in general) 21. Helm: steering apparatus, or to operate such equipment (a position of leadership, or to lead) 22. Jury rig: to rig makeshift equipment (to make a quick fix using available materials) 23. Keel: the backbone of a vessel, running along the center of the hull (balance, as when someone is on an even keel) 24. Keelhaul: to drag a sailor underneath the ship along the hull as punishment (to punish severely) 25. Leeway: sideways movement of a vessel because of current or wind (flexibility) 26. Log: originally, a length of wood attached to a line and tossed overboard to measure speed, then a device with the same function; also, a record of operation (an accounting of any activity or progress) 27. Lookout: a sailor standing watch (someone keeping watch, or the position from which the person does so) 28. Manhole: an opening in to a compartment (a hole providing access underground or into a structure) 29. Mooring: securing with anchors or lines, or a place where mooring occurs (a stabilizing influence) 30. Navigation: the operation of a vessel (direction for traveling or movement through a virtual area, as on a website) 31. Overhaul: to ready equipment for use (to rebuild or repair) 32. Pilot: a steersman, or to steer a vessel (an operator of an aircraft or spacecraft, or to operate such a craft or to direct an operation or procedure, or a business or organization) 33. Quarantine: temporary sequestration of a vessel because of the possibility of spreading disease, or the location of the sequestration (enforced isolation, especially because of contagion, or the place of isolation) 34. Quarters: assigned living areas or workstations on a vessel, or an assembly of all crew members (lodging) 35. Rudder: an immersed blade of wood, metal, or plastic attached to a vessel and turned remotely to change its direction (a guiding force) 36. Salvage: to rescue or save a ship and/or its cargo, or the compensation for doing so; also, the property salvaged (saving something from being destroyed or discarded, or what is saved) 37. Scuttle: to sink a vessel by cutting a hole in the hull (to ruin something by abandonment or sabotage) 38. Scuttlebutt: a cask for holding drinking water and, by extension, the idle talk exchanged while drinking from it (gossip) 39. Seaworthy: in condition to be operated (solid or valid) 40. Ship: to send cargo or passengers by sea (to transport or distribute) 41. Shorthanded: lacking enough crew members (not having enough people to perform a task) 42. Sounding: a measurement of the depth of water (seeking an opinion or a statement of intention) 43. Stow: to put away and, by extension, to keep one’s opinion to oneself (to arrange, load, or store) 44. Swamped: submerged (overwhelmed) 45. Tack: to change a vessel’s direction, or the new direction (to shift one’s viewpoint, as in â€Å"take a new tack†) 46. Tide: the change of surface level of a body of water because of gravitational fluctuations (a fluctuating or rising phenomenon) 47. Under way: in motion (in progress) 48. Wake: the visible track of a vessel through water (aftermath) 49. Waterlogged: filled or soaked with water but afloat (full of or saturated with water) 50. Watertight: capable of preventing water from entering (solid, flawless) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Writing a Reference Letter (With Examples)75 Idioms and Expressions That Include â€Å"Break†January 1 Doesn't Need an "st"

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Critical Literature Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Critical - Literature review Example The way to behave was more readily mapped, and people knew what to do in the various phases of their lives from childhood through teenage years, work, marriage, parenthood, retirement and preparing for death of loved ones and of one’s own self. The modern industrialised, capitalist world, he argues, is fluid and contains many more uncharted areas and this requires that our self-identity should form a trajectory, requiring that we make day to day adjustments depending on what happens in our lives. (Giddens: 1991, p. 14). Incessant streams of new information result in a process of what Giddens calls â€Å"chronic revision† (Giddens: 1991, p. 20) and the complexity of modern capitalist society requires people to place their trust in increasingly opaque systems and organisations, many of which are subject to quite spectacular failures and radical transformations. Crossley partly agrees with this analysis and adds the observation that modern societies consist of overlapping networks, and that embodiment is reflexive, and imposed upon individials from many souces (Crossley: 2006, p. 112) Giddens describes the way that all human beings put on â€Å"performances† of their self in different social situations. ... 57. Bourdieu’s influential work on human judgement and taste proposes that all human culture is structured in a hierarchical way and that people access this culture through the family that they are born in and then via all the opportunities that they meet in later life (Bourdieu: 1984, pp. 1-5) This theory implies a structuralist view whereby social patterns tend to repeat themselves again and again through the generations. Bourdieu uses the concept of habitus, which is the partly unconscious way in which people deal with the society around them. (Bourdieu: 1984, pp. 169-174) He argues that people learn how to see the world, and consume all it has to offer, in their early childhood, and that they are conditioned by their family background to approach things in certain habitual ways: â€Å"The manner in which culture is acquired lives on in the manner of using it.†(Bourdieu: 1984, p. 1) The foods people eat, the clothes that they wear, the music and films they like, the values they place on educational achievement and all the other products of the modern world are therefore embodied in each person in stratified ways, and this explains the differences between social classes and the tendency for people to remain within their original social class. When this insight is applied to inborn qualities like race and gender it also helps to explain why people from ethnic minorities, women and people from lower social classes still suffer exclusion and unequal access to promotions in work even when educational barriers have been removed. Bourdieu’s point is that how people learn things is just as important, as what they learn because this

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Managing Value for Competitive Advantage Company Analysis Essay

Managing Value for Competitive Advantage Company Analysis - Essay Example The rapid changes in business environment in the 21st century demand that businesses reinvent themselves in order to remain relevant. The economy has changed from being commodity based to become a knowledge –based one. Sources of value creation have shifted from tangible assets to intangible things. Advances in technology and globalization have given the issue of making networks and building long-term relationships more prominence (Castell, 2000). Simply put, in the information age, the flow of communication plays a vital role in enabling the business to succeed. According to Freeman, the term stakeholder may be defined as any group or individual who are in a position to affect or be affected by a company’s objectives. The type of interests that the stakeholders have in a company differs. For instance, investors have a stake in the equity of the firm. In addition, other direct stakeholders such as customers, employees, suppliers and competitors have a stake in the financial success of the company. Wheeler and Sillanpaa (1997) also included individuals and groups that speak for the environment, non-human species and future generations in the list of stakeholders. This type of stakeholders is interested mostly on the impact that the firm has on people and on the environment. Further, Freeman states that there are two fundamental issues that should be articulated in the analysis of stakeholder theory and value creation (1994). First, the fundamental question on the purpose of the organization must be answered. This sets the stage for the management to elaborate on the core function that the firm engages in. The shared purpose of the value that the organization creates helps to rally the stakeholders to work hand in hand towards achieving their goal. The second issue that should be considered is about the responsibility of the management to the stakeholders. It is accepted that sustainable economic value can only be created by the voluntary coming together of people to improve the wellbeing of each other. It is imperative the organization outlines how it intends to do business and precisely the kind of relationships it intends to build with the stakeholders. Creating value for stakeholders provides a win-win scenario for both the firm and the stakeholders (Jones et al, 2002). When a company creates products and services that customers are willing to buy, offering rewarding jobs that

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Energy Policy of Russia

Energy Policy of Russia Introduction Russia is a naturally powerless nation, encompassed by other extraordinary powers and having no effectively faultless fringes. Furthermore, Russia is a huge, cold domain populated by assorted ethnic gatherings that generally have been at chances with Moscows brought together power. This leaves Russia with a reasonable arrangement of objectives to hold together as a nation and secure itself as a provincial force. To start with, Russia must solidify its general public under one power. Second, it must extend its energy over its quick neighborhood to make cradles against different forces. The formation of the Soviet Union is the clearest case of this basic in real life. Finally, it must influence its characteristic assets to accomplish an offset with the immense powers past its fringe (wikipedia, 2015). The Russian Energy approach is contained in an Energy staggering strategy archive, which sets out strategy for the period until 2020. In 2000, the Russian government endorsed the primary procurements of the Russian energy procedure to 2020, and in 2003, the new Russian energy system was affirmed by the legislature. The Energy Strategy record traces a few primary needs: an increment in energy productivity, diminishing effect on nature, feasible improvement, energy advancement and mechanical advancement, and in addition enhanced viability and aggressiveness. The economy of the Soviet Union was in view of an arrangement of state responsibility for method for creation, aggregate cultivating, modern assembling and brought together authoritative arranging. The economy was described by state control of venture, and open responsibility for resources. (Rousseau, 2013). Historical Perspectives Political background: The Putin regime is very much aware of the difficulties confronting the Russian energy division. Russias endeavors in the previous decade to move far from reliance on energy trades by concentrating on mechanical improvement have not been especially effective and keep the nation fixing to the destiny of its energy part. Russias technique of utilizing its energy trades as both an outside strategy apparatus and an income generator is conflicting now and again: To utilize energy in remote approach, Moscow must have the capacity to lower or raise costs and debilitate to cut off supplies, which is an abomination to the income producing perspective. The Kremlin has started creating an arrangement of strategies intended to modify the nation to the progressions that will come in the following two decade (James Henderson, 2014). Economical Background: The Soviet financial framework was set up for in the range of six decades, and components of that framework stayed set up after the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991. The pioneers applying the most considerable impact on that framework were its organizer, Lenin, and his successor Stalin, who secured the predominant examples of collectivization and industrialization that, has to be normal of the Soviet Unions halfway-arranged framework. In the year of 1980, on the other hand, inborn imperfections have to be clear as the national economy moped; without further ado from that point, change projects started to modify the conventional structure. One of the boss reformers of the late 1980s, Yeltsin, directed the considerable disintegration of the focal arranging framework in the mid-1990s (Jong, 2012). While in the 1980s Russia had experienced supply deficiencies, all through the 1990s as transported in merchandise overflowed into the nation, Russians could no more manage the cost of most products. Stores that had already stood void were currently supplied with a wide range of products that nobody could stand to purchase (Phyllis, 2014). Energy Background: Russia is a naturally powerless nation, encompassed by other awesome powers and having no effortlessly faultless outskirts. Moreover, Russia is a monstrous, generally ungracious region populated by differing ethnic gatherings that truly have been at chances with Moscows brought together power. This leaves Russia with an unmistakable arrangement of objectives to hold together as a nation and make itself as a provincial force. To start with, Russia must unite its general public under one power. Second, it must extend its energy over its quick neighborhood to make cushions against different forces. The production of the Soviet Union is the clearest illustration of this basic in real life. Finally, it must influence its common assets to accomplish a parity with the considerable powers past its outskirts. Russia has utilized a mixture of instruments all through history to attain to these objectives, going from farming fares to immaculate military success and intimidatio n. By the 1950s, Russias energy segment had turned into one of the significant mainstays of its financial and political quality (Rousseau, 2013). Markets: What Energy Sources have been most important; how have energy market dynamics affected Russia? Russia has always been focused on the European markets. Since then, they have been too determined about the fact they are controlling the European markets. Various new undertakings are being developed, however these new ventures might just balance declining yield from maturing fields and not bring about critical yield development in the close term. The utilization of more propelled innovations and the use of enhanced recuperation systems are bringing about expanded oil yield from existing oil stores (St. Rosemary Educational Institution, 2015). The potential oil stores of Eastern Siberia, the Russian Arctic, the northern Caspian Sea, and Sakhalin Island are pulling in consideration. Various worldwide oil organizations have secured real estate and are putting intensely in investigation and advancement on hydrocarbon-rich Sakhalin Island, despite the fact that the Russian government is pushing for a more prominent part for household organizations in these ventures. Gazprom procured control of the Sakhalin task from Shell, and it is looking for control of the displaying of gas supplies from the Sakhalin I anticipate drove by Exxon Neft Ltd, an auxiliary of Exxon. Russian organizations are likewise venturing into the Arctic and Eastern Siberian areas, impelled on by assessment occasions and lower oil fare levies. While a few new fields have gone ahead line subsequent until 2009, bringing extra fields into generation will require some investment and may oblige a transformed oil charge administration from the legislature (eia.gov , 2013). International Oil (Energy) Companies and National Oil (Energy) Companies; What International Companies Have Played a Major Role; Does Russia Have National Energy Companies? Of course, Russian owns the Gazprom Company and it is one of the biggest petroleum and energy providers in the Russian market and the neighboring area of Europe and eastern Russia. Gazprom is a worldwide energy organization. Its real business lines are geographical investigation, creation, transportation, stockpiling, preparing and offers of gas, gas condensate and oil, offers of gas as a vehicle fuel and also era and promoting of warmth and electric force. Gazprom perspectives its main goal in dependable, proficient and adjusted supply of common gas, other energy assets and their subsidiaries to buyers. Gazprom holds the worlds biggest regular gas saves. The Companys offer in the worldwide and Russian gas stores makes up 18 and 72 every penny separately. Gazprom represents 14 and 74 every penny of the worldwide and Russian gas yield in like manner (gazprom, 2015). At present, the Company effectively executes expansive scale ventures went for misusing gas assets of the Yamal Peninsul a, Arctic Shelf, Eastern Siberia and the Far East, and in addition, hydrocarbons investigation and generation extends abroad (gazprom, 2015). There is also Rosneft followed by Surgutneftegaz as well as Tatneft and Lukoil. These firms are state-owned monopoly transneft and the oil products pipelines are owned and operated by the subsidiary Transnefteproduct. Russia offers an intriguing sample of the differentiation between the attractions of an unlimited hydrocarbon asset base to significant oil and gas organizations and the issues that can be experienced in attempting to put resources into it. Global Partnership in Russia gives a novel knowledge into the joint endeavors, which have been framed in the middle of residential and worldwide accomplices in Russia amid the post-Soviet time (ucsf.edu, 2015). Energy Mix: What Are the Major Sources of Energy That Russia Uses; Has the Mix Changed Over Time? Russia is the second biggest maker of dry regular gas and third-biggest fluid fills maker on the planet. Regardless of its critical stores of coal, it delivers just humble measure of coal. Russias economy is very subject to its hydrocarbons, and oil and gas incomes represent more than 50% of the government spending plan incomes. Russia is a real maker and exporter of oil and characteristic gas, and its economy generally relies on upon energy trades. Russias monetary development keeps on being driven by energy fares, issued its high oil and gas creation and the lifted costs for those products. Oil and gas incomes represented 52% of government spending plan incomes and more than 70% of aggregate fares in 2012. Russia is the third-biggest generator of atomic power on the planet and fourth-biggest regarding introduced limit. With ten atomic reactors presently under development, Russia is the second nation on the planet regarding number of reactors under development in 2012, as per the IA EA (James Henderson, 2014). Energy Security: What Are the Energy Security Challenges Russia Faces; Have These Changed Over Time? It is all related to the relations between Russia and the European Union since Russia suffers economic sanctions. Correspondence in energy business access is a subject, which during the time has highlighted reliably at the highest point of the EU Russia plan. After some time, the issue has come to mean distinctive things on either side of the association in any case. For the EU, correspondence relates to openness of the inner energy advertise in return for access to remote markets. So also, correspondence considers the insurance of the inner business against those states that have not changed their energy segments in equivalent measure. Russia in any case, sees correspondence in connection to the status of the long haul supply administration that exists in universal gas exchange. It bargains more with quantitativeexchanges,suchasvolumes by-volumes, orassetswaps.Atthesame time, venture correspondence comes from any political accord between the on-screen characters included. Fundamenta lly, the matter is best represented through, from one viewpoint, the tenets on third nation administrators inside the EU internalenergymarketwithinthe’third legislativeMarketPackage’, and the change of existing and reception of new Russian enactment on the support of outside organizations inside its energy area. In 2007, the European Commission tabled a bundle of proposition to change the inward energy market. The bundle included solid tenets on the partition of systems from exercises of creation and supply and a correspondence provision (Aron, 2013). Energy Economic Development: What Role Have Which Energy Sources Played in the Russian’s Economy? The quick test to common gas rents, then again, is a sharp loss of benefit in view of the opposition from option methods of generation made conceivable by new advances. The last incorporates even penetrating to tap shallow yet expansive stores and water powered breaking when sand, chemicals, and water, gel, or condensed gasses are infused under incredible weight into shale rock developments to concentrate gas and oil. Therefore, throughout the most recent decade US gas imports have contracted by 45 percent. Much more than Russian oil, regular gas rents are liable to psychologist altogether in the impending years. Notwithstanding Gazproms infamous defilement and international transparency positioned it among the minimum straightforward organizations on the planet (eia.gov, 2013). Putins dedication to oil and gas as the backbone of Russias advancement originates from a profound and withstanding feeling about its significance to the countrys economy. Much sooner than he came to power, he had accepted that the rebuilding of the national Russian economy on the premise of mineral and crude material assets was a key component of financial development in the close term. One of the worlds two biggest oil makers and the main supplier of regular gas to Europe, Russia has progressively utilized its incomes from energy fares to reinforce the Putin administration. As new, less expensive energy suppliers develop and the business gets to be leaner and more aggressive, Russia needs to reduce its reliance on benefits from these assets on the off chance that it is to dodge stagnation and perhaps a monetary emergency. The administration needs to actualize profound institutional changes to make a superior speculation atmosphere and enhance the economy, yet in doing as such it da ngers undermining the tyrant vertical of force (Lanthemann, 2013). Governance: How Has Russia Dealt With Energy Issues? Fundamentally, the EU essentially unrealistic to fly a lot of characteristic gas from some other source. In light of the current numbers, and all the more particularly, it can be presumed that, regardless of the possibility that we include the Azerbaijani characteristic gas, shale gas in North America and common gas, which can be imported from the Eastern Mediterranean, we get less 50 billion cubic meters, that is, the aggregate utilization every year. As it were, the volume of gas from all these option sources will meet stand out third of the characteristic gas that we purchase in Russia, and just 10% of aggregate utilization in Europe. Second, to the offer 2035-imported gas taken together utilization of regular gas in Europe will increment from the current 66% to 84%. On the off chance that these information are broke down in light of the way that the North Sea stores are lessened, the European business is under extreme weight in a circumstance. Europe is not preceding the investig ations. Third, the interior strife in Iraq and Libya determine these nations past the energy segment (U.S. Library of Congress, 2015). Sustainability Justice: What Are the Main Sustainability Issues Facing the Russia? How Has It Sought to Deal With These Issues? Energys helpfulness as a method for accomplishing Russias three principle objectives has adjusted over the long run in light of the fact that Russia has needed to change its techniques relying upon shifts in household or global circumstances. Moscows quality lies in its adaptability in dealing with its energy segment. Past fare incomes, the energy division has added to the production of a locally steady and industrialized state. Russias household energy utilization is high because of to a great degree chilly climate for a large portion of the year, yet notwithstanding inefficiencies inside the energy part and the expense of creating energy, the nations residential stores have empowered Moscow to give its subjects and the businesses that utilize them with low energy costs (Phyllis, 2014). Conclusion Finally, the energy segment additionally adds to Russias capacity to grow its impact to its prompt neighbors. Moscows utilization of energy as influence in the support states contrasts from nation to nation and extents from controlling local energy generation. Swinging to option oil and gas trading nations may give a short to medium-term arrangement; be that as it may, Europes emphasis on lessening its reliance on Russia redirects consideration from the locales proceeded with dependence on hydrocarbons. The southern Gas Corridor may sidestep Russia and Iran, however, by all evidences Europe would remain excessively subject to hydrocarbon energy trades from a locale that remaining parts inside Russias range of authority, albeit to a lesser extent a firm hold than beforehand. As opposed to the proceeding with prioritization of energy security connected to the fare and import of oil and gas, the eventual fate of energy security for both Europe and Russia lies in the expansion of energy assets and in moving far from a reliance on fossil fills (Aron, 2013). References:

Friday, January 17, 2020

Propoor Tourism in Iran

1. Background of Study Tourism is clearly of large importance for developing countries. Islamic Republic of Iran, by having great natural resources and historical back ground and heritages should be able to make a great use of these potentials to create a healthy and on growing economy. Recently, government of Iran has started to invest more on tourism sector of the country, but it is not easy for government to implement all the strategies they need for growth in the industry.There are many issues which should be taken into consideration before applying those strategies. One of these issues is the population of poor people in the country, which is a great quantity from the overall population, doesn’t have any important role in this implementation and strategies or benefits. Poor in Iran can’t afford to travel and also can’t afford to invest and be dynamic part of industry. Travelling is considered as a luxury facts which not everyone can afford to do it and more over invest on it.There is a need for setting up a new type of tourism in country which everyone can travel and invest and get the benefits of it and more people can participate. However, according to Dilys R (2001), analysis of tourism data in developing a country shows that in most countries with high levels of poverty, tourism is significant and increasing. The poor can participate in the tourism industry in many ways – as workers, entrepreneurs, and neighbors. They gain new opportunities but also face limitation. They earn incomes, but also suffer costs of tourism.These impacts vary enormously from destination to destination. Enhancing the opportunities and impacts for the poor is the concern of this research. Pro-Poor Tourism (PPT) is about how the business of tourism is done. The impacts of tourism on the poor depend very much on the behavior of private companies and individual tourists. At the same time, these are strongly influenced by Government, through its policies , regulations, public investment, expectations, and actions, not only in tourism but in other sectors too (Caroline A, 2006).As mentioned by Dilys R (2001) â€Å"Achieving poverty reduction requires actions on a variety of balancing fronts and scales, but for such to happen it is required a significant progress is pro-poor growth – (growth which benefits the poor)†. Together with that Dilys R (2001) also questioned, â€Å"As an industry that is clearly important in many poor countries, can tourism be one source of such growth? † 1. Country profile: Islamic Republic of Iran Iran, a country slightly larger than Alaska, is located in the Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf in the south and the Caspian Sea in the north.It covers an area of 1. 648 million square kilometers (636,296 square miles) and is edged between Iraq, with which it shares a border of 1,458 kilometers (906 miles), and Pakistan and Afghanistan in the east, with which Iran h as 909 kilometers (565 miles) and 936 kilometers (582 miles), respectively, of common borderline. Iran also shares 499 kilometers (310 miles) of borderline with Turkey, 992 kilometers (616 miles) with Turkmenistan, 432 kilometers (268 miles) with Azerbaijan, and some 35 kilometers (22 miles) with Armenia, the latter 3 states formerly being part of the USSR (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009).Most of the 2,440 kilometers (1516 miles) of coastline are on the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The two gulfs are connected by the strategic Strait of Hormuz. Iran has dozens of islands in the Persian Gulf, many of which are uninhabited but used as bases for oil exploration. Those that are inhabited—notably Qeshm and Kish—are being developed, attracting investors and tourists. The Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea is some 740 kilometers (460 miles) long.Apart from being home to the sturgeon that provides for the world's best caviar, the Caspian Sea is the world's largest lake, with an area of some 370,000 square kilometers, and is co-owned by Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). In general, Iran consists of an interior plateau, 1,000 meters to 1,500 meters (3,000 feet to 3,500 feet) above sea level, ringed on almost all sides by mountain zones. The Elburz range with the Iranian capital, Tehran, at its feet, features the country's highest peak, the snowcapped volcanic cone of Mt. Damavand, at 5,604 meters (18,386 feet).To the north of the range there is a sudden drop to a flat plain occupied by the Caspian Sea, which lies about 27 meters (89 feet) below sea-level and is shrinking alarmingly in size. The larger Zagros mountain range runs from north-west Iran down to the eastern shores of the Persian Gulf, and then eastward, fronting the Arabian Sea, and continuing into Pakistan (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). Iran has a relatively young population, with 34 percent of the population unde r the age of 14 and 61 percent between 15 and 64 years of age. Thanks to a family planning program, population growth decreased from 3. percent in 1984 to 1. 7 percent in 1998 and further to 0. 83 percent in 2000. Of the population, an estimated 38 million Iranians (or 60 percent) live in urban areas, while approximately 27 million live in rural areas (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). The population density was 37. 6 inhabitants per square kilometer (97 per square mile) in 1998, though many people are concentrated in the Tehran region, and other parts of the country (especially deserts) are basically uninhabited. Basic literacy rates are above the regional average, although uncertain reporting standards give a wide margin for error.In 1997-98 the central bank estimated literacy at 80. 5 percent in those over 6 years old, with 75. 6 percent of women and 85. 3 percent of men judged to be functionally literate, i. e. they were taught to read and write at some point (Encycloped ia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). Iran's infrastructure is relatively poor and inadequate. Part of this stems from the fact that the vast country was never fully developed, but it also experienced considerable setbacks during the Iran-Iraq war of the 1980s, and restoration since then has been slow (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009)Iran has a network of 140,200 kilometers (87,120 miles) of roads, of which 49,440 kilometers (30,722 miles) are paved. The 2,500-kilometer (1,553-mile) A1 highway runs from Bazargan on the Turkish border across Iran to the Afghan border in the east. The A2 runs from the Iraqi border to Mirjaveh on the Pakistani frontier. Tehran is linked to major cities in the vicinity by 470 kilometers (292 miles) of express-ways. A heavy expansion of car use has led to increased demand for fuel, severe overcrowding of roads in metropolitan areas, and mounting pollution problems.Government estimates put the average annual increase in domestic fuel consumption at 5. 5 percent, well above the real economic growth rate. The government has sought to limit motor use by raising domestic fuel prices, but petroleum products in Iran remain heavily subsidized and among the cheapest in the world (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009) Before the revolution Iran had begun to build a reputation as an exotic holiday destination; its ski resorts at Shemshak and Dizin, north of Tehran, attracted international celebrities.After 1979, the Islamic government discouraged tourism, leaving many renowned archaeological and historical sites, including Persepolis, Pasargard, and Esfahan, barely visited by foreigners (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). Although hardly a booming sector, visitor rates are beginning to rise. The government has begun to issue visas more freely to non-Muslim individuals and groups, and the country is appearing with greater frequency in tourism brochures, but still only around 320,000 foreign tourists actually visit, bringing in reve nue of US$170 million.The bulk of tourism remains to be founded on Shia pilgrimage centers such as Mashhad and Qom. The Bonyad-e Mostazafan (Foundation of the Oppressed), which owns most of Iran's large hotels, plans to increase the number of hotel beds from the current 34,500 to 59,500 by 2002 (Encyclopedia of the Nations, Iran, 2009). 2. Tourism in Iran Currently, Iran is a country covered in political, religious, cultural, social and economic controversy.It is a country that magistrate’s extreme emotional and ideological debate and faces challenges as a tourism destination both because of this controversial context and as a result of its association with conflicts in neighboring countries like Afghanistan and Iraq. Distinction of tourism in Iran is complicated by its position at a cultural crossroads, the time-span over which invasions and migrations have taken place and the present day situation where a large population of recent refugees exists from wars and political un rest in neighboring countries.Iran has enormous cultural diversity on the one hand and a homogeneous religious authority on the other but it is the latter that currently dominates. Furthermore, government which protects and promotes its own brand of Islamic indigenous culture and heritage with a fierce pride and an international image epitomized by US President Bush’s reference to the ‘axis-of-evil’ and you have a situation where indigenous tourism in the normal sense of the phrase is suppressed. Even when used in a conventional sense, the term indigenous tourism is much contested but certain key concerns and debates emerge from the literature.These include: multifaceted host, guest and intermediary relationships; lack of industry knowledge and incorporation of local cultures; lack of local awareness of tourism and ownership of tourism related businesses; and a need for carefully considered policies to avoid degradation of culture and ensure development is sustai nable (Kevin O. G, McLellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). Many of these concerns are relevant in Iran to some extent although it is argued in this chapter that indigenous tourism has been suppressed in Iran. Nevertheless, there are indications that a unique form of local tourism infused with indigenous character has begun to emerge.This local variation of indigenous tourism is taking shape despite the striking homogeneous national image portrayed in the international mass media. The early stage in the tourism development life cycle means that tourism is generally considered as a national phenomenon, at a national scale rather than local. Growing links between tourism and the protection of Iran’s national cultural heritage were reinforced in 2005 with the merger of Iran Touring and Tourism Organization (ITTO) and Iran Cultural Heritage Organization (ICHO) to form the Iran Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization (ICHTO) (Kevin O. G, McLellan L. R & Tom B, 2007).Although the strong in fluence of the central government is clear with direct authority for the new organization resting with the Vice President of the Islamic Republic of Iran (WTO, 2006), the link between culture heritage and tourism allows vestiges of indigenous tourism to survive but not flourish. 2. Problem Statement How much pro-poor tourism is known by tourism policy makers of Iran? Since, there is no record or papers found about pro-poor tourism in internet or media, According to the research in the internet , there is no evidence to prove Iran’s government are aware of the opportunities and benefits of pro-poor tourism in general.Moreover base on the research, there isn’t any specific actions or strategies done by government to implement pro-poor tourism in Iran. There is a big gap between opportunities and potentials of tourism in Iran and plans and strategies done by the government to make use of these opportunities. As a result there is not much attention to pro-poor tourism in I ran as well as other types of tourism like eco-tourism and medical tourism and etc. But what are the issues of implementing pro-poor tourism strategies in Iran’s society?First problem is lake of knowledge and awareness on this type of tourism. There is no evidence shown that, there are groups or people in government or private sector who think or plan for Po-poor tourism in Iran and it as a big squander for tourism sectors of Iran. Following by first issue, the second will be the lake of planning and strategizing the steps and creating visions and working on that plans. Third is to implement the plans and start educating the poor to use the benefits of it. 3. Research questionsBased on the statement and significance of study presented, the research question will be: 1: Is pro-poor tourism adoptable in Iran’s society? 2: How political and religious issues can effect pro-poor strategies? 3: What are the ways to plan effectively for pro-poor tourism in Iran? 4: What are t he stages of implementing pro-poor tourism in Iran? 5: What will be the issues and problems of implementing the pro-poor tourism strategies? 6: How to monitor and review for performance of pro-poor tourism strategies? 4. Research objectives : To find the best understanding of pro-poor tourism The research first objective is to introduce the pro-poor tourism to Iranians Government as well as private tourism organizations, and create an excellent understanding of this type of tourism in Iran. 2: To create a goal and mission One of the requirement for this progress will be creating goals and missions to understand better how to reach our goals and whether we reach the goal of the strategies or not and also to evaluate the progress better. 3: To structure and plan for putting our strategies into actionOnly understanding of Po-poor tourism in not enough to benefit the society, there should be a plan to implement and follow to gain our goals and missions. 4: To implement the strategies co rrect and accurate and controlling the action constantly There should be a way to controlling the progress even during implementing it to find whether strategies are correct or to make sure that there are putting in to action correctly. 5. Theoretical Frame Work In this research, the researcher wishes to find how pro-poor tourism can help Iran’s tourism for further developments and improvements.To gain this goal first need to find out opportunities, challenges and issues related to the research and analyze it. Second step is to create the right strategies and to find how these strategies can help development of tourism in Iran. 6. Conceptual Framework 7. Significances of research 1: How pro-poor tourism can helps in rising economy. 2: How pro-poor tourism’s income can be distributed to the poverty in the society. 3: How pro-poor tourism can help society in other aspect, such as creating more jobs, motivates poor, educate people and etc.This paper will also discuss abou t the economical potentials of pro-poor tourism in Iran. This study believes that Iran have many potentials in tourism industry which never used or discovered by the government and people who works in tourism industry. One of the potentials are implementing pro-poor tourism and developing the tourism in poor or not very developed areas. By developing tourism specifically pro-poor tourism industry, government can decrease unemployment and help poor, by teaching them fishing rather than giving them fish.Poor which most of them don’t have chance to study or build a new business for themselves can be educate by government or by NGOs and social committees and be able to become a part of tourism sector and help themselves and family and also subsequently help the society and government as well. 1. Importance of Tourism Industry Tourism is a leading industry in the service sector at the global level as well as a major provider of jobs and a significant generator of foreign exchange at the national level.Tourism has become one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the global economy. During the period between 1996 and 2006, international tourist arrivals worldwide grew at an average annual rate of about 4. 0 per cent (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 10). According to the report by United Nations in (2007, page 12) about Role of Tourism in Socio-Economic Development, â€Å"The strong growth in tourism arrivals in Asia, particularly the sub regions of North-East Asia, South Asia and South-East Asia is one indicator of the increased significance of tourism for developing countries.Visitors worldwide have clearly recognized the attractiveness of tourism experiences in Asian and Pacific developing countries in terms of the rich cultural heritage and natural environment. Many officials in these countries have seen that tourism can be part of their development strategies, especially in economic terms. † Tourism is considered based on its contribution in the form of receipts; share of gross domestic product (GDP) and exports; and growth rate patterns for the tourism industry, tourism economy, government expenditures and capital investment.The economic impact of the tourism industry is usually assessed at the macroeconomic level and can be measured in several different ways. The most general measurement focuses on tourism receipts and the contribution of tourism to a country’s GDP (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 26). The United Nations Statistics Division and the World Tourism Organization (now UNWTO) developed the tourism satellite account in 2001 as one of the most systematic measurement of the economic impact and contribution of tourism at the national level (United Nations Report, 2007).According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), the TSA is â€Å"based on a demand-side concept of economic activity, because the tourism industry does not produce or supply a homogeneous product or service like many tradition al industries. Instead, the travel and tourism industry is defined by a diverse collection of products (durables and non-durables) and services (transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, entertainment, government services, etc) that are delivered to visitors†. It is important for policy-makers at national and local levels to see that this diversity has many complex links to all parts of the economy.This is what makes the economic impact of tourism so significant for development. There are various definitions of social development, and most of them converge around the concepts of improving the well-being of a country’s citizens, promoting higher standards of living, increasing employment and creating conditions of economic and social progress. Employment is one of the most readily available indicators to begin measuring the social impact of tourism, since job creation generally helps create the opportunities for better standards of living and related conditions o f socio-economic progress (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 8). In socioeconomic terms, linkages refer to the connections between the tourism industry and local suppliers of goods and services through both the formal and informal economy. Leakages refer to payments or financial flows made outside the economy of the destination country. For companies in various sectors of the tourism industry, linkages are seen in business terms as the supply chain. Linkages can stimulate increased economic activity and have a positive effect on balance of payments as local products replace imported ones.The positive impact of linkages also relates to the capabilities and competitiveness of domestic firms. Among the direct benefits from effective linkages are increased output of the linked enterprises, increased employment, improved market access, increased knowledge and a broader skill base. In addition this could improve efficiencies in productivity, managerial capabilities and market penetration (U nited Nations Report, 2007, p. 54). 2. Historical evidence of tourism in Iran Iran is a country that is rich in diversity in cultural and historic terms, representing a recorded human history that stretches back some 10,000 years.The people who inhabit this country have a long history of involvement in tourism. There is considerable evidence for hostels that dates back to at least 2000 BC. These hostels supplied drinks, sex and accommodation for travelers. Drinks included date palm wine and barley beer, and there were strict regulations against diluting them (Gorman O. K & McLellan L. R, 2007, p. 303). â€Å"The application of strict Islamic law and a consequent political ambivalence to international tourism is not universal in predominantly Muslim countries† (Gorman O. K & McLellan L. R, 2007, p. 03). Today, Iran’s heritage draws both on native histories and cultures as well as the impact of waves of raider, notably the Greeks of Alexander the Great, the Arabs who int roduced Islam to the country, the Mongols from the east and in the twentieth century, the influence of the oil hungry west (Britain, France and the US). Iran’s solid cultural assets include seven ancient locations recognized by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as World Heritage Sites as well as a range of renowned Islamic shrines and cultural sites.Iran’s natural heritage is also diverse, including desert, mountains and coasts across climatic zones from temperate to sub-tropical (Gorman O. K & McLellan L. R, 2007, p. 303). In actual fact, what have generated particular interest in Iran as a host country for domestic and international tourism are the â€Å"effect of religious interpretation by the country’s brand of contemporary Islam on the political, religious, cultural, social and economic environment and the everyday lives of citizens and visitors alike†.Iran adheres to strict standards of observance and the app lication of stringent penalties for non-compliance with respect to social and cultural behavior impacting upon personal association, dress and the consumption of alcohol and other recreational drugs. Certainly, these rules impact upon Iran’s image, market potential as a destination for international tourism and the role of indigenous people in tourism. 3. Definition of Pro-poor tourism What is Pro-poor Tourism (PPT)? Pro-poor tourism is about increasing the positive impacts of tourism on poor people. PPT is not a specific product but an approach to the industry.It is an approach that seeks to increase participation of poor people at many points in the sector, and that aims to increase their economic and social benefits from tourism while reducing the negative impacts on the poor. (www. propoortourism. org. uk) PPT is the kind of tourism that contributes to the reduction of poverty. It is neither a specific product nor a niche market. It is multi-level, multi-dimensional and a ny tourism can be made pro-poor. There are many NGOs and government organizations involved in PPT but the driving force for change will be the private sector.There is an increasing realization that to be sustainable, PPT initiatives must involve the private sector in reducing poverty through business activity, rather than alleviating it through philanthropy. PPT initiatives work well when access to natural resources is maintained and exposure to risk is minimized. PPT can also bring important benefits such as more jobs, business opportunities, and improved access to infrastructure and services (Pro poor Brochure FINAL, 2006). 2. 3. 1 Why Pro-Poor Tourism? Tourism is a major economic sector worldwide and especially in developing countries.According to the World Bank’s World Development Indicators Report (2002), more than 70% of the world’s poorest countries rely on tourism as a key engine of economic growth. Poorer countries have the most to gain from PPT initiatives. B ut they are also the most vulnerable to the negative effects of mass tourism, in terms of social, environmental and cultural degradation. Furthermore, the distribution of benefits and income from tourism is often not equal. Financial benefits usually end up at the big hotels, tour companies and airlines.Poorer people too often suffer the negative costs of tourism. PPT engages poorer people and seeks to empower them so that they too share in the benefits from tourism (Pro poor Brochure FINAL, 2006). 4. Challenges of Pro-poor tourism in the World According to the World Trade Organization, international tourist arrivals in 2005 reached an all-time high of over 800 million. By 2020, arrivals are expected to reach 1. 6 billion, generating US$2 trillion. While global tourism numbers increase, this does not necessarily translate into increased revenue for citizens of many developing countries.A few factors typically prevent the disadvantaged from sharing in the tourism dollar. (Pro poor Br ochure FINAL, 2006). Most tourism dollars end up off-shore. Typically, only US$10-20 of every US$100 spent by the tourist remains in the developing country. According to United Nations Environment Program, of each US$100 spent on a package tour, only around US$5 actually stays in a developing country’s economy (Pro-poor Brochure FINAL, 2006). The Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership says, â€Å"One of the critical issues for poor producers is often access to the market – access to the established industry and to tourists. Smaller hotels and guest houses and local NGOs have little or no opportunity to market to tourists via the Internet, thus they gain little share of the dollars tourists spend. Some would question the very starting point – engagement with companies to promote pro-poor change. Tourism companies, after all, are profit-seekers, whose business is commercial tourism, not development. But the assumption reinforced to the work presented here is that ‘we ’ (as society) should seek to reduce the impact of tourism business (Caroline A and Gareth H 2004). . 4. 1 The argument goes as follows: †¢ Poverty is widespread and direct approaches to poverty reduction are making insufficient progress – thus ‘pro-poor growth’ is also needed, i. e. growth which is inclusive of the poor. †¢ Tourism is a major economic sector worldwide, with particularly rapid relative growth in poor countries, thus is potentially very important for pro-poor growth. †¢ (Limited) evidence shows tourism can be developed in ways that increase net benefits for the poor.Furthermore, one approach to this is for companies to do business differently, and evidence indicates that doing business in pro-poor ways can make commercial sense. This should, therefore be promoted (Caroline A and Gareth H 2004). 5. Pro-poor tourism practice’s in the world Nowadays, as world is emerging into globalization, Tourism Industry has become one of the main income resources of many developed and some developing countries. As Tourism booming, they are several practices done to gain exposure, especially in the context of this research.One example is in Nepal where the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation initiated the Tourism for Rural Poverty Alleviation Program (TRPAP) from 2001 to 2005. The immediate objectives were to demonstrate sustainable tourism development models, review and improve policy formulation and strategic planning, adapt institutional mechanisms, including decentralization, in order to achieve sustainable tourism development that would be pro-poor, pro-environment, pro-rural communities and pro-women (New York: United Nations, 2005).Another example is; The Mekong Tourism Development Project of the Lao National Tourism Authority and Asian Development Bank focuses on improving tourism related infrastructure, promoting pro-poor, community-based sustainable tourism in rural areas, and strengthening sub-regional cooperation. The project provides training to local people on guiding, hospitality, cooking, tourism management, and marketing. Technical and financial assistance is also provided to help communities build tourism infrastructure such as guest houses, toilets, rest areas and nature trails Steven S, 2007). To monitor socio-economic impacts, a community-based tourism monitoring protocol has been established and implemented over the past 3 years. Project outputs include several community-based tourism related training manuals in the Lao and English languages, dozens of marketing and promotion publications, seminars, workshops and training course materials for tourism service providers and regulatory agencies, and some 40 small-scale infrastructure projects ranging from handicraft markets to information centers and village tourism lodges (Steven S, 2007).The project is producing direct financial benefits for over 600 families in 16 villages and indirect benefits for a much w ider population. To date, sales of community-based tours developed by the project and sold by local inbound tour operators have generated over US$175,000 in foreign exchange. Tour companies that partner with the project and tourist attractions where the project is active report that revenues of two million dollars have been generated over the past three years (Steven S, 2007).Also in Bhutan; The Nabji-Korphu Trail in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park in central Bhutan, the first pro-poor tourism pilot project of the national tourism strategy, was officially opened in November 2006 (Pelden D, 2007). The development of the trail, a 6-day, low altitude winter trek, enabled each village along the route to participate in revenue raising activities, such as provision of community camping sites, cultural programs, village guiding and provision of meals. Tour operators were compelled to use these local providers (Pelden D, 2007).One year on, socio-economic tourism impact analysis has sho wn that 84% of households received additional cash income from the 62 trekkers in the first season, contributing over US$38, 000 directly to the communities. Ninety eight percent of local respondents felt that tourism had brought tangible economic benefits and a range of other indirect benefits were also identified by respondents (Pelden D, 2007). The project involved the Department of Tourism (DOT), the Nature Conservation Division (NCD) and the Association of Bhutanese Tour Operators nd links with Bhutan’s national tourism strategy and 9th Five Year Plan. SNV delivered technical assistance in support to development and implementation of the project (Pelden D, 2007). 6. Traveling Potentials of Iran In 2006 the Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization entered into a memorandum of understanding with the raveling’s Issues Organization to establish the traveling Cooperative Association, which was entrusted with the task of attracting foreign tourists to nomadic regions of the country. Persian society was formerly a traveling one. United Nations Report, 2007, p. 100). Thus, travelers are considered to be a cultural treasure which needs to be preserved. The Department of Tourism Development in traveling Regions was thus established to provide economic development for the nomads by carrying out technical and infrastructural studies. Along with the Department, the traveling Tourism Institute undertakes measures in marketing, advertising and attracting foreign tourists by organizing tours in traveling areas, providing posters, catalogues, pictures and other advertising instruments.In addition, a special centre will be established in Tehran to provide an outlet for the sale of traveling products (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 100). The authorities hope that devising appropriate tourism programs for traveling regions will lead to an increase in the incomes of the traveling tribes, which would, in turn, raise their standard of living without har ming their social systems and traditional lifestyles (United Nations Report, 2007, p. 100). 7. Poverty in Iran Before analyzing about poverty line in Iran, this research provides some useful information about labor force, unemployment rate and inflation rates.Then only can start analyzing the figures and how pro-poor tourism as a new type of tourism can helps to reduce economic problems. [pic] Figure 2. 1: Sources: CIA World Fact book – September 17, 2009 Figure 2. 2: Sources: CIA World Fact book -September 17, 2009 Figure 2. 3: Sources: CIA World Fact book -September 17, 2009 In this season of presidential elections in Iran, a scenario much in demand is that poverty has increased under Ahmadinejad government. There are newspaper reports of research that offer evidence for just such a scenario, that seem influential but have not gone through the usual academic scrutiny (Javad D, 2009).A few months ago Salehi D, commented  on another high profile poverty report that appeared last year in a journal  published by  the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, using faulty methodology to show that poverty has increased. A study by researcher,  Professor Davoud S, of Sharif University of Technology in Iran states, the prominent Persian website  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Rastak†Ã‚  which is dedicated to â€Å"free market economics†, is  a mark above the rest in academic rigor and therefore worth a closer look (Javad D, 2009).He  estimates that more than  one-third  of urban Iranians were in poverty in 2007 and, more shockingly, that this rate has increased  during 2004-2007, the first three years of Ahmadinjad’s administration. Salehi D, shockingly not because Mr. Ahmadinejad had promised to eradicate poverty–that was hardly in the cards–but because in these four years Iran received about $200 billion from the rest of the world, some of them poor countries, from oil generated revenues. To learn that this inflow of money (nature’s gift) not only did not lift anyone out of poverty, it actually made the poor poorer is indeed shocking (Javad D, 2009).Professor Souri, who is a knowledgeable econometrician and knows his data well, but there are reasons why his study of poverty in Iran, like many others, should not be taken at face value. Let us look  a closer look at how he arrives at his conclusions (Javad D, 2009). According to Professor Souri, first conclusion that he drafted explains about high incidence of poverty is really not much of a finding because of his assumption defines, everyone under $10 per day ($4. 40 in rural areas) as poor. This is a superior standard to which no developing country has been held as far as I know.It  is 2/3 the poverty line in the United States and more than three times the threshold international agencies use to compare countries  (the so-called $2 per day) (Javad D, 2009). Another widely reported study uses a poverty line of nearly 8 million â€Å"rials † (Iraninan Currency) for a family of five, which translates into $16 per person per day, which is higher than the US poverty line! â€Å"The problem with these studies is not their very high poverty thresholds, it is that they fail to warn their readers about how their poverty lines compares with those used in other countries.Publishing poverty results that use poverty thresholds that are not comparable across countries can confuse international readers and convince unsuspecting journalists in the west, as well as some with an ax to grind, that Iran’s economy is a basket case (Javad D, 2009). A recent case  in point  of the latter group appears in the â€Å"Nowruz† newspaper (Iran’s daily newspaper), address by Israeli president Shimon Perez to Iranian people, in which he said:  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I see the suffering of the children [in Iran] and I ask myself, why? This is a country that is so rich† You can’t invest the money in enriched uranium w hile telling the kids to stay a little hungry and a little ignorant†. Where he sees the suffering of Iran’s children he does not explain; perhaps he is deducing it from studies that show poverty in Iran on a grand scale. The stronger point in Souri’s study is that poverty has increased during 2004-07. This finding should disappoint anyone who voted for Ahmadijead as a leader who would do something for the poor.It should anger people in oil importing nations who paid through the nose for Iran’s oil in recent years, that the country took $200 billion from other (sometimes poorer) countries only to impoverish its own poor. Is the economic system in Iran so broken that its richer citizens are not satisfied with the $200 billion they generate from oil revenues and have to rob their own poor? 8. Challenges and issues of Tourism in Iran Economically and politically, tourism is always likely to be a minor industry relative to the oil and other sectors with the res ult that politicians have little interest in it.This lack of interest is even greater in relation to niches such as indigenous tourism. A counter argument to this reality, which does not receive widespread attention in Iran, is the employment creation potential of tourism (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, pg 312). Oil and gas, notwithstanding their value to the country, generate relatively few benefits in employment terms. At the same time, the country’s major social and economic challenge is unemployment and under-employment among the youth.The under 25s constitute 75% of the total population and in some urban areas up to 50% of these young people do not have gainful employment. Tourism, despite its labor intense characteristics and geographical dispersion, is overlooked as a sector that can provide opportunity to this group. (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, p312). Tourism in Iran is characterized by huge opportunity in terms of natural and cultural assets . At the same time, such opportunity is countered by what can be described as political ambivalence at best and antipathy at worst. Encouraging tourism in Iran is a highly contested issue between two main section in the government, one that views tourism as means to achieve economic benefits and modernize, the other that sees tourism as leading to globalization and thus threatening Islamic values and norms† (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, pg313). The current political belief is highly apprehensive of foreign, non-faith influences and this situation acts contrary to interests seeking to develop tourism as a respectable and respected sector of the economy, particularly in rural and remote areas where indigenous tourism is likely to emerge.Rather than protect and support locally based tourism, the prevailing national ideology stifles local businesses from benefiting from cultural assets. The current environment is not, however, as overtly hostile to tourism as that whi ch existed in the immediate post-revolutionary era (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). During the period of the Khomeini led government, the state destroyed some historical monuments in the manner of the Taliban in Afghanistan but, more recently, a degree of restraint has prevailed.However, the image of Iran in the international tourist market is almost unique in terms of negative media attention over a sustained period. Only Libya and perhaps Cuba have suffered similar long periods of extremely negative western media coverage. As an outcome, the core perception of Iran in the eyes of the world and in particular, in the eyes of potential tourists from North America and Europe has been of a troubled, strife torn country that should be avoided (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007).The Government in Iran does not help counter this image as tourism still tends to be subjugated to the ‘big project’ of promoting a religious – political agenda. For example, the August 2004 public execution of a 16-year old girl in the main street of a Caspian seaside resort, during the height of the tourist season received widespread national and international press coverage and blighted local tourism. Throughout the 1990s negative international media exposure was tempered by the hope that tourism development would be encouraged as part of an attempt to create an image of greater openness under President Khatami.But a constant barrage of damaging news items in the western media reinforced the old negative image (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). After encouraging foreign tourists to watch the solar eclipse in Iran in 1999, a relatively isolated incident led to the usual western headlines: ‘Tourists kidnapped in Iran’. ‘Three Spaniards and one Italian were abducted by an armed gang’ (BBC, 1999a) and ‘Official inquiry into Iran eclipse harassment’ as a result of foreign tourists visiting to view the eclips e, particularly women, being subjected to hostile slogans and harassment by Islamic hardliners (BBC, 1999b) (Kevin O.G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). While this seemed to be the case in five of the countries (Iraq, North Korea, Cuba, Syria and Libya), in Iran the journalist was ‘detained and intimidated’ as the cameras, tapes and tourist visa were viewed as the instruments of spies. The lack of foreign investment in tourism can also be seen as a major mainstream tourism challenge, especially in the hotel sector, in that both product and service are woefully inadequate for the contemporary international leisure and business market (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, pg 314). Service standards in the major state hospitality businesses are among the poorest in the world, contrasting with the warmth and natural hospitality of service in small, private, indigenous businesses throughout the country† (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, p. 314). In marketin g perspective, international tourism to Iran is severely challenged by problems with respect to national image, relating to regional political concerns and also national social and cultural matters, notably the hijab requirement for women and the ban on alcohol.For example, there is evidence that some Chinese tour operators are unwilling to promote Iran because of the hijab requirement. Wider concerns about human rights issues are also a barrier to visitation and are further complicated by the challenges facing minority indigenous groups in Iran (Kevin O. G, Mc Lellan L. R & Tom B, 2007). 9. Strategies relate to pro-poor tourism development According to one report, regular monitoring and evaluation to assess the benefits was difficult at the field level due to lack of communication, limits on transportation and on-going armed conflict in some districts.Similarly, frequent transfer of the government officers from the program districts presented a challenge to monitoring implementatio n of pro-poor tourism policies and strategies of TRPAP. Monitoring activities from the rural community level to the central level in order to sustain the pilot rural tourism models required a different evaluation strategy. (Kayastha Y, 2006) An evaluation tool known as the â€Å"Development Wheel† was designed for communities to self-monitor their progress through discussions about changes in the community structure, development of enterprises and natural and cultural resources.The â€Å"Development Wheel† is one of several evaluation tools that are part of an evaluation methodology known as the Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA). The APPA methodology focuses on having local people identify plans and activities that are positive, successful and strong so they can serve as a means to empower communities. When people used the â€Å"Development Wheel†, it proved to be the most effective participatory way to evaluate progress of TRPAP at the progr am sites (Kayastha Y, 2006). On the other hand, WHL (World Hotel Links Corporation) make travelling easier for independent travelers.To find small local accommodation providers Independent travel is the fastest growing segment of the travel industry. A 2004 International Finance Corporation study on eco-lodges put the global independent traveler market at 50%. Many travelers use guidebooks and the Internet to select destinations and accommodation and rarely use tour packages. Thus they spend and leave more money locally. By serving smaller accommodation providers, WHL is making it easier for independent travelers to find interesting travel experiences, which in turn translates into more bookings for local SMEs (www. worldhotel-link. com).The researcher believes that such strategy analysis can be an important tool in furthering the research on pro poor tourism sustainability in Iran. 3. 1 Research Philosophy and General Method This chapter explains the methodology of the study which means the ways have been used for gathering the information and data and consequently how this study will analyze the data to find the best answer for the mentioned research questions. There is two methods of analyzing the data which are qualitative data analysis and quantitative data analysis . qualitative data typically involves words and quantitative data involves numbers.In this research, only Qualitative analysis is used by researcher to measure and analyze the data of the study. Specifically researcher attempt to use Discourse Analysis as types of qualitative analysis for this study, and that is why there will be definition of Qualitative Analysis and Discourse Analysis stated in this study. 3. 1. 1 Qualitative analysis Quantitative approaches are those where you make measurements using some relatively well-defined measurement tool. Assuming that the theory behind doing the measurement is valid, and then a well developed quantitative tool should give you information in which y ou can have confidence (www. sse. monash. edu. au). On the other hand, qualitative research methodologies are designed to provide the researcher with the perspective of target audience members through immersion in a culture or situation and direct interaction with the people under study. A qualitative â€Å"approach† is a general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research. It describes, either clearly or totally, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researchers, the stages of research, and the method of data analysis (Trochim, 2006). „Qualitative methods allow us to stay close to the experimental world.They are designed to ensure a close fit between the data and what people actually say and do. By observing people in their everyday lives, listening them talk about what is on their minds, and looking at the documents they produce, the qualitative researcher obtains first-hand knowledge of social life unfiltered through concepts, operational definitions, and rating scales? (Taylor & Bogdan,1984). According Marketing dictionary, â€Å"qualitative research is a research that deals with the quality, type, or components of a group, substance, or mixture, whose methods are applied to advertising audience research in order o determine the quality of audience responses to advertising† (www. answers. com). Along with the above reference, according to the article published by DJS Research Ltd (2009), Qualitative research is used to help us understand how people feel and why they feel as they do. It is concerned with collecting information in detail and asking questions such as why do you say that? Depth interviews or group discussions are two common methods used for collecting qualitative information. http://www. marketresearchworld. net 3. 2 Discourse AnalysisThe focus of discourse analysis is any form of written or spoken language, such as a conversation or a newspaper article. The main topic of interest is the underly ing social structures, which may be assumed or played out within the conversation or text. It concerns the sorts of tools and strategies people use when engaged in communication, such as slowing one's speech for emphasis, use of metaphors, and choice of particular words to display affect, and so on. The investigator attempts to identify categories, themes, ideas, views, roles, and so on, within the text itself.The aim is to identify commonly shared discursive resources (shared patterns of talking). The investigator tries to answer questins such as how the discourse helps us understand the issue under study, how people construct their own version of an event, and how people use discourse to maintain or construct their own identity (Fulcher E, 2005). This research has been done to expose weaknesses and problems of Tourism development and planning specifically focus on pro-poor tourism and discuss about challenges and issues as well as opportunities for this industry.Moreover find out the reasons why tourism industry in Iran is not enough developed as compare to other developing countries with less attractions, facilities and potentials. The studies aim is to help to understanding the meaning and usage of pro-poor tourism and finding the challenges and analyze them and finding the reasons and issues which make this problems and by recommending and suggesting some action plans help to improve tourism policy and establishing new type of tourism industry which is not very new in the world and it is pro-poor tourism in Iran. . Process of Study Since this research is about pro-poor tourism in, Iran the study will focus more on Explanation of benefits of pro-poor tourism in Iran and the ways it will benefit the society and economy of the country. The research will be descriptive and then method of the study will be qualitative . after gathering the data will be analyzed on the content to find and recognize the issues and challenges of implementing the strategies and pl ans to find out the best effective strategies. Diagram 3. : Data Analysis process 3. 3. 1 Data collection (Notice and Bring Together) Study will began with collecting necessary information from reliable resources and identify the related data and bring those data together. Researchers collected some parts of the data which has from internet and from KDU College Library. Since this research have been doing in Malaysia, and there is no other possible ways for collecting the data from Iran, Internet played a very important role for finding the data very and necessary information.Beside internet and journals, interviews with professionals of the industry and also papers of pro-poor tourism researches which have been done by professors and lectures of KDU College and was presented in a pro-poor tourism conference in Malaysia (KDU College, 2009) will be used to help the study to analyze and strategies the plans which will be recommended by this study to improve tourism industry for the be tter future of the country. 3. 3. 2 AnalysisBase on the above studies research start to analyze the data and information which have been founded in the last stage to finding the correct answers for the research questions, and then planning for an action plan which will be use in next stage of study. The method of analyze which is using for analysis the data in this research, is qualitative method of analysis, and it is going to be evaluate by discourse analysis. 3. 3. 3 Action plan (Make Decision)In this part of study, according to the data we analyze and after finding challenges and issues in tourism industry, some recommendation and action plans will suggest to improve the tourism development and establishing pro-poor tourism in Iran. This study believes that the result of this research will be useful and helpful for building sustainable tourism policy in Iran for near future. 4. References Ashley. C and Haysom G, 2004, From Philanthropy to Different way of doing business: â€Å" Strategies and Challenges in Integrating Pro-Poor Approaches into Tourism Business†. Also available http://www. ropoortourism. org. uk/Publications%20by%20 partnership/propoor_business_ATLASpaper. pdf. Viewed 28/11/2009 Answer. com, Marketing Dictionary: Qualitative Research [Online] available http://www. answers. com/topic/qualitative-research-1. Viewed 14/12/2009 Caroline . A, 2006, For SNV East and Southern Africa, â€Å"How Can Governments Boost the Local Economic Impacts of Tourism†. Viewed 29/11/2009 Dilys. R, 2001, Pro-Poor Tourism: â€Å"Harnessing the World’s Largest Industry for the World’s Poor†, UK and Penny Urquhart Khanya, South Africa, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Viewed 1/11/2009 DJS Research Ltd: â€Å"What is Qualitative Research† [Online] available http://www. marketresearchworld. net/index. php? Itemid=64&id=10&option=com_content. Viewed 14/12/2009 Dorji. P, 2007, Pro-Poor Community-based Nature Tourism in Bhutan [Online] available http://www. propoortourism. org. uk/pptpar2007. pdf Viewed 12/12/2009 Encyclopedia of the Nations 2009 (Iran) Country over view; â€Å"Location and size, Population, Infrastructure, power, and communications, Transportation, Power, Telecommunications, Industry† Also available: http://www. nationsencyclopedia. com/economies/Asia-and-the Pacific/Iran. tml. Viewed 3/12/2009 Fulcher. E, 2005, What is Discourse Analysis? [Online] available http://eamonfulcher. com/discourse_analysis. html. Viewed 14/12/2009 Gorman, O. K. D, McLellan, & L. R Baum, T. 2007, Tourism in Iran: â€Å"Central Control and Indignity†. In Tourism and Indigenous Peoples: â€Å"Issues and Implications†. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, p. 297-317 Viewed 8/11/2009 Iran Labor force (2009) [Online], available http://www. indexmundi. com/iran/labor_force. html Viewed 5/11/2009 Inflation rate in Iran (2009) [Online], available http://www. indexmundi. com/ira n/inflation_rate_(consumer_prices). tml Viewed 5/11/2009 Iran unemployment rate (2009) [Online], available http://www. indexmundi. com/iran/unemployment_rate. html Viewed 5/11/2009 Javad. D & Salehi. I, 2006. Revolution and redistribution in Iran: â€Å"Poverty and inequality, 25 years later, Department of Economics, Virginia Tech† Viewed 4/11/2009 Javad. D, 2009, â€Å"Tyranny of numbers Claims of rising poverty in  Iran† [Online] available http://djavad. wordpress. com/2009/03/30/playing-with-poverty-numbers Kevin O. G, McLellan L. R & Tom B, 2007, Tourism in Iran: â€Å"Central control and indignity† Viewed 3/12/2009Kayastha, Y, 2006 â€Å"Monitoring and Evaluation of a Pro-Poor Tourism Project in a Conflict Situation†, Conference Monitoring and Evaluation of Pro-Poor Tourism Policies for Sustainable Development, Saarbrucken, Germany, Also available: www. wuwien. ac. at/inst/iuw/fsnu/saarbruecken/papers/abstracts/Kayastha. pdf. Viewed 6/11/2009 Monas h University (2007): Qualitative and Quantitative Thinking [Online] available http://www. csse. monash. edu. au/~smarkham/resources/qual. htm Viewed 14/12/2009 Pro-poor tourism, UK, 2009 [Online] available www. propoortourism. org. uk Viewed 8/12/2009Pro-poor Brochure FINAL, 2006 [Online] available http://www. ifc. org/ifcext/mekongpsdf. nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/Propoor_Tourism/$FILE/Propoor_Tourism. pdf Viewed 9/11/2009 Pro-poor tourism; Annual register 2007, [Online] available http://www. propoortourism. org. uk/pptpar2007. pdf Viewed 9/11/2009 Steven S, 2007, The Mekong Tourism Development Project in the Lao PDR [Online] available www. ecotourismlaos. com and http://www. propoortourism. org. uk/pptpar2007. pdf Viewed 10/12/2009 Taylor, S & Bogdan, R 1984, â€Å"Introduction to Qualitative Research Method†s, JohnWiley & sons, New York Viewed 30 April 2009 United Nations Report, 2007, New York, â€Å"Study on the Role of Tourism in Socio-Economic Development† Viewed 3/1 2/2009 United Nations ESCAP, â€Å"The Contribution of Tourism to Poverty Alleviation†, Tourism Review number 25 (New York: United Nations, 2005), p. 68-70. Viewed 5/11/2009 World hotel-link, 2009 [Online] available http://www. ifc. org/ifcext/mekongpsdf. nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/Propoor_Tourism/$FILE/Propoor_Tourism. pdf Viewed 12/12/2009 ———————– Chapter One: Introduction Chapter Two: Literature Review Chapter three: Methodology

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Natural Disasters And Attacks By Individuals Or Groups

Throughout the worlds history, there have been many natural disasters and attacks by individuals or groups, which have done extensive damage to cities, forests, and families within societies communities. The question that remains is, are there systems in place to effectively handle situations accordingly? In Canada, there is a model in place called the Incident Command System, (ICS). According to I.C., (2012), â€Å"An incident is an occurrence, either caused by humans or natural phenomena that requires a response to prevent or minimize loss of life or damage to property and/or the environment† (p.3). Essentially the system is in place to manage emergency situations regardless of the initial cause and is utilized in various events whether they†¦show more content†¦Once New Orleans was declared a ‘state of emergency’ by President Bush, mandatory evacuations began, while one of the largest challenges faced by first responders commenced. The safety and secur ity of individuals was certainly at the forefront of the direction of the response. However, the I.C., (2012), indicated â€Å"The response to Katrina featured neither an effective network nor an effective hierarchy. It lacked a clear command and positive working relationships among key actors† (p.14). Although this disaster was devastating for the people of New Orleans, having procedures, and planning in place prior to the event occurring could have limited the various challenges faced once the storm hit. Due to the extensive damage Katrina did to the city, citizens were in desperate need of action in regards to services, which included necessities to life, and search and rescue (Moynihan, 2007). Furthermore, response to the disaster was difficult as due to the size and extent of the damage, coordination, and situational awareness were limited (Moynihan, 2007). Agencies have highly trained personnel, however, regardless of the amount of training and preparation for a catastr ophic event like Katrina, first responders only gain experience in dealing with these events upon them occurring. Furthermore, the ICS model was applicably in this situation and there are examples of how it was used effectively and in-effectively during Katrina. Efficient Non-Efficient Use of the ICSShow MoreRelatedEmergency Management : A Threat Of Public Safety1451 Words   |  6 PagesEmergencies can arise any place at any time on any day. The nature of any disaster can be unpredictable and may change in scope and impact. When an emergency is encountered there is a threat of public safety, the community, properties, the economy, infrastructure, public health, etc. Disaster Management is not a problem solver it does not avert or eliminate the threats made, it mainly focuses on eradicating the severity of the disaster itself. 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